Glossary

Technical

 

1080i 
High-definition, interlaced footage recorded at 1928×1090 pixels.

1080p
High-definition, progressive footage recorded at 1920×1080 pixels.

16:9
Aspect ratio of high-definition footage; a wide, rectangular-shaped image.

24p
Footage recorded at 34 frames per second progressive; also called 23.976

25p
Footage at 25 frames per second in progressive.

29.97
Footage at 29.97 frames per second.

2k  
2000 lines of resolution; standard format for projects intended for film output.

4:3
Square aspect ratio of standard-definition footage.

4k 
4,000 lines of resolution; 4096×2304.

60i
Footage recorded as 60 interlaced fields per second.

A/D converter
Analogue to digital converter, for digitizing analogue audio or sound into a digital format.

ADR 
Automated Dialogue recording, recording dialogue in postproduction to replace production audio; also referred to as looping.

ASA
American Standers Association measurement used to classify the speed of a negative film stock or the sensitive of a digital image sensor, often used side by side with ISO.

ASC
America Society of Cinematographers, A Hollywood-based Guild for distinguished Directors of Photograph; also published American Cinematographer Magazine.

Aspect ratio
 The width of an image divided by its height.

B Camera
An auxiliary camera shooting at the same time as the main unit camera; its footage is often referred to as b-roll.

Bitrate
The amount of digital data being processed during a given time period.

Block 
To determine the geography and desired angles for a scene.

Bluray
A high-definition, recordable disc format developed by Sony

Breathing
Visible wobbling on the edges of the frame; happens as the lens focus is changed; typically more apparent with lower-quality lenses.

CF card
CompactFlash memory card.

Chroma
The colour portion of a video signal.

Cineon
The image file format developed by Kodak for digital intermediates.

Clapper sticks
 Wooden of plastic slate with production information and two sticks that come together at the start of a take to help assist with post-production audio assist.

CMOS
Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor chip.

Codec
Compression/decompression’ a specific algorithm for compressing video or audio.

Colour space
A method of mathematically representing colour for use with a specific display or medium.

Colour temperature
A method of describing the colour characteristics of light source.

Cutlist
A list of hosts used in an edited to be pulled from negative film rolls.

D5 
 A professional digital videotape format developed by Panasonic; available in standard and high definition.

DAT
Digital Audio Tape, used for recording production sound.

DCP
Digital Cinema Package, a format used for digital files intended for theatrical exhibition.

Debayer
The mathematical process of interpreting raw image data from a sensor back into a full-colour image.

DI 
 Digital Intermediate; the process of digitally colour correcting footage for final output.

Digibeta
Digital Betacam tape, a standard-definition tape format developed by Sony.

DNxHD
Avid’s high-definition post-production codec.

DP
Director of Photography or Cinematographer.

DPX 
Digital Picture Exchange, an image file format for use in a digital intermediates.

DSMC
Digital Still & motion Camera, RED’s concept of cameras that are capable of functioning as a still camera and motion pictures camera.

DV
Digital Video, a compression codec used to digitally capture and store standard definition video.

EDL
Edit Decision List, a film format for exchanging completed edit sequences between NLEs and other postproduction software.

ENG
A term used to indicate the individual or team involved in Electronic News Gathering; documentary and news productions are often referred to as ENG crews.

eSATA
External SATA harddrive.

EVF
Electronic Viewfinder.

Firmware
User-upgradable on-board software

Focus-puller
Crew member who manually adjusts lens focus during a shot.

Gain
Elect

ronically amplify an audio signal or brighten an image.

Gamma
 Mathematical method of calibrating an images brightness values for use with different displays..

Grade
Colour correct an image.

HD
High Definition footage has a resolution of 1280×720 pixels or 1920×1080 pixels.

HDCAM
A high-definition tape format developed by Sony; originally intended as an HD version of Digital Betacam.

HDMI
High-Definition Multimedia Interface, widely adopted on consumer and prosumer video monitors and accessories.

HD-SDI
High-Definition Serial Digital Interface for monitoring.

Histogram
 An analysis graph of image exposure.

Interlace 
Footage stored as overlapping half-frames referred to as fields.

Latitude
The range of brightness and/or colour values within an image; also a measurement of an images sensor’s sensitive.

Linear
A method of expressing Values of colour and brightness equally across and entire range of altitude.

LOG
Logarithmic, a method of expressing brightness and colour values on a curve.

LTO
Linear Tape-Open, a digital tape format used to achieve data.

LUT
LookUp Table, a set of instructions used to profile colour and gamma to simulate their appearance on a given medium, such as an HD display or a specific film stick.

Megapixel 
One million pixels, a term used to describe the size of a digital image sensor.

Metadata
Footage attributes.

NAB
National Association of Broadcasters convention in Las Vegas.  Where camera and other media making manufactures debut new technologies.

NLE 
 Nonlinear Editor, such as Avid Media Composer, Adobe Premiere Pro and Final Cut Pro.

NTSC
National Television System Committee, 29.97 frames per second, standard definition analog television format used more in North America and Japan.

PAL
Phase Alternating Line, 25 frames per second, standard–definition analog television format used more in Europe.

Pixel
The smallest component of a digital image.

PL mount
Positive-lock lens mount developed by ARRI.

Post-production
Activity that occurs on a project after principal photography.

POV
Point OF View, a shot taken directly from a character’s perspective.

Prime lens
A lens with a fixed focal length.

Progressive
Footage stored as discrete frames.

ProRes
Apple’s High quality post-production codec.

QuickTime
Apple’s video format and player; used the .mov file extension.

R3D
 RED’s native recording format for footage.

RAID 
Redundant Array of Independent Disks, a linked set of multiple hard drives for storing data with higher performance and reliability than a single hard-drive.n

RAW
Unprocessed image sensor data enabling extensive post production manipulation

RTEC 709n
The display standards used for high-definition television signals.

REDCODE
RED’s proprietary compression codec.

RGB
Colour data separated into RED, Green, and Blue channels for viewing on a display.

S35
Image sensor comparable in size to a Super 35mm frame.

SATA 
Serial ATA hard drive, used for high-speed data transfer; eSATA is the external version

SD
Standard-Definition Footage has a resolution of 720×480 pixels or 720×576 pixels.

SMPTE
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, a group of standards to define common media production signals.

Solid State Drive (SSD)
A memory card or hard drive with no moving parts.

Sync
Synchronization, typically between separately recorded picture and sound.

Timecode
Method of counting individual frames of recorded footage, used to determine shooting formats as well as ensure audio/video synchronization.

Transcode
Convert video or audio data from one codec, resolution, and/or format to another.

T-stopn
 Measurement of a motion-picture camera lens’ aperture; referred to as F-stop on still-camera lenses.

USB
Universal Serial Bus connector used on hard drives and many other computer peripherals

Video village
Location where a DP sets up production monitors for viewing by the director and crew.

XLR
A connector often used for audio peripherals; three-pin for audio, four-pin for power.

XML
Extensible Markup Language, a customizable file format used to exchange data between post-production applications.

Zebra
 A customizable striped pattern appearing in the EVF or monitor to indicate areas of an image falling within a defined exposure range.

Zoom lens 
A lens with variable focal length.

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